Konrad the Grosse Otto
the Reiche Albrecht the Stolze
1127 - 1154 1156 - 1190 1190 - 1196
The Franks under Charlemagne slowly conquered the pagan Saxon tribes (782-804). The Saxons were initially subsumed by the Frankish Empire, but emerged as a separate kingdom during the Carolingian fragmentation that followed.
888 -918Saxony emerges as one of the more powerful stem duchies in East Francia (kings of Germany), once the formal split is made between East and West Franks. The earliest dukes seize the throne of East Francia and under Otto I create what comes to be known the Holy Roman Empire.
DUCHY & KINGDOM OF SAXONY
AD 888 - 962
880 - 912Otto the Illustrious
912 - 936Henry I the Fowler King of the Saxons (918-936).
936 - 973Otto I the Great King. First Emperor of German Roman Empire (962-973).
962 -1025Otto's line continues as Holy Roman Emperors.
DUCHY OF SAXONY
AD 962 - 1260
There came to be some conflict in Saxony between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dukes. The former went on to become HREs while the latter seemed to lose out and were granted the Duchy of Brunswick as compensation.
962 - 973Hermann Billung
973 - 1011Bernard I
1011 - 1059Bernard II
1059 - 1072Ordulf
1072 - 1106Magnus
1106 - 1127Lothar II of Germany HRE (1125-1137).
1127 - 1138Henry II (IV) Welf, the Proud Duke Henry XI of Bavaria.
1138 - 1142Albert I the Bear Gained the Margraviate of North March & formed Brandenburg.
1142 - 1180Henry III (V) Welf, the Lion Duke Henry XII of Bavaria.
1180 - 1212Bernard III
1212 - 1260Albert II Margrave of Brandenburg (1205-1260).
1260 - 1356Interregnum? During this period the feud between the Hohenstaufens and Welfs reaches its peak. Saxony is divided between Saxe-Lauenberg (in the west) and Saxe-Wittenberg (in the east). Only the eastern part retains its name, and is much reduced in stature, now being a mere Electorate.
ELECTORATE OF SAXONY
AD 1356 - 1806
The title of the duchy of Saxony had passed to the Margraves of Meissen, a march county between the original Saxon lands and Poland. Later Saxony was situated east and south of the original duchy. The original duchy lands eventually became known as Upper Saxony, and were subsumed within Westphalia. The newer lands around the Lower Elbe became Lower Saxony, and this is where the name survived until the end of the German Empire.
As with many German states, territory began to be divided with formal and permanent divisions between heirs, and some of these were never undone by succeeding generations. There could be as many dukes as there were heirs, but only one of them could retain the title Elector of Saxony. So the first division of Saxony was between Electorate and Duchy. Saxe Weimar became Saxony's principle duchy, and was eventually elevated to a grand duchy.
1356 - 1370Rudolf II of Saxe-Wittenberg
1370 - ?Wenceslaus
? - 1419Rudolf III d.1419.
1419 - 1422Albert III
1423 - 1428Frederick I the Warlike Duke & Elector.
1439 - 1482William III Rival Duke of Luxemburg (1439-1482).
1428 - 1464Frederick II the Gentle Elector. Ruled in absentia?
1464The electorate's territory is divided between Ernest and Albert. Ernest's line holds the electorship for a few generations before the Albertines gain precedence.
1464 - 1486Ernest Elector. Founder of the Line of Ernestine.
1464 - 1500Albert the Bold Duke. Founder of the Line of Albertine.
1473 - 1541Henry the Pious Albertine, Duke.
1486 - 1525Frederick III the Wise Ernestine, Elector.
1500 - 1539George the Bearded Albertine, Duke.
1525 - 1532John the Constant Ernestine. Elector.
1532 - 1547John Frederick the Magnanimous Ernestine Elector. Duke (1532-1554).
1547The Albertines gain the electorship and retain it permanently.
1547 - 1553
Maurice Albertine Duke (1541-1553).
1554 - 1595John Frederick II Ernestine Duke. John William Ernestine Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1572-1573).
1553 - 1586Augustus
1586 - 1591Christian I
1591 - 1611Christian II
1611 - 1656John George I
1656 - 1680John George II
1680 - 1691John George III
1691 - 1694John George IV
1694 - 1734Frederick Augustus I Also Augustus II the Strong, first Saxon king of Poland.
1734 - 1763Frederick Augustus II Son. Also King of Poland.
1763 - 1806Frederick Augustus III Christian Leopold Son.
1806The electorate is elevated to a kingdom by Napoleon Bonaparte on 11th December.
KINGDOM OF SAXONY
AD 1806 - 1918
1806 - 1827Frederick Augustus I Christian Leopold Kingdom halved by Prussia in 1814.
1815By this time there exists alongside the Kingdom of Saxony, the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, and the Duchies of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Hildburghausen, and Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld.
1826The wife of the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld is heiress to Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, so the latter title falls to Saxe-Coburg as Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The duke's son, Albert, marries (in 1839) Queen Victoria of England, and one of his sons later inherits the title. Saxe-Altenburg is detached from Saxe-Gotha and passes to Saxe-Hildburghausen. The latter duke exchanges this for his old territory, which passes to Saxe-Meiningen.
1827 - 1836Anthony Clement
1836 - 1854Frederick Augustus II
1854 - 1873John
1871The kingdom annexed as part of the German Empire by Prussia. Ironically, Prussia itself was originally created out of the margraviate of Brandenburg, which the original Dukes of Saxony helped create. Saxony now occupies the position of a sub-kingdom.
1873 - 1902Albert
1902 - 1904George
1904 - 1918Friedrich, Last King of Saxony.
1918All German monarchies are abolished upon the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.
HEREDITARY KINGS OF SAXONY
AD 1918 - Present Day
1918 - 1932Friedrich
1932 - ?George, Eldest son.
?Frederick Christian, Second son.
Text from Kessler
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